Motörhead (/ˈmtərhɛd/) were an English rock band formed in London in 1975 by bassist and lead vocalist Lemmy Kilmister, guitarist Larry Wallis and drummer Lucas Fox. Lemmy was also the primary songwriter and only constant member. The band are often considered a precursor to the new wave of British heavy metal, which re-energised heavy metal in the late 1970s and early 1980s.[1] Though several guitarists and drummers have played in Motörhead, most of their best-selling albums and singles feature drummer Phil “Philthy Animal” Taylor and guitarist “Fast” Eddie Clarke.

Motörhead released 23 studio albums, 10 live recordings, 12 compilation albums and five EPs over a career spanning 40 years. Usually a power trio, they had particular success in the early 1980s with several successful singles in the UK Top 40 chart. The albums OverkillBomberAce of Spades and, particularly, the live album No Sleep ’til Hammersmith cemented Motörhead’s reputation as a top-tier rock band.[2] The band are ranked number 26 on VH1‘s 100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock.[3] As of 2016, the band has sold more than 15 million albums worldwide.[4]

Most often classified as heavy metal, Motörhead has been credited with being part of and influencing numerous musical scenes, thrash metal and speed metal especially. Lemmy, however, always insisted that they were a rock and roll band. He said they had more in common with punk bands, but with their own unique sound, Motörhead is embraced in both punk and metal scenes. Their lyrics typically covered such topics as war, good versus evilabuse of powerpromiscuous sexsubstance abuse and, most famously, gambling, the last theme being the focus of their hit song “Ace of Spades“.[5][6][7][8][9][10]

Lemmy died on 28 December 2015 from cardiac arrhythmia and congestive heart failure, after being diagnosed with prostate cancer.[11] The day after his death, drummer Mikkey Dee and guitarist Phil Campbell both confirmed that Motörhead had disbanded. By 2018, all three members of Motörhead’s best-known line-up (Lemmy, Taylor and Clarke) had died.

Jack McDowell

Jack McDowell

Jack Burns McDowell (born January 16, 1966) is an American former baseball player. A right-handed pitcher, McDowell played for the Chicago White SoxNew York YankeesCleveland Indians, and Anaheim Angels of the Major League Baseball (MLB). Nicknamed “Black Jack“, he was a three-time All-Star and won the American League Cy Young Award in 1993.

McDowell has also been a professional musician, most notably with the rock band stickfigure.

Chicago White Sox[edit]

McDowell was drafted by the Chicago White Sox in the first round (fifth pick) of the 1987 amateur draft. After only six games in the minor leagues, he made his Major League debut on September 15, 1987. He pitched seven shutout innings against the Minnesota Twins that day to pick up the win. In four starts, he was 3-0 with a 1.93 ERA.

In 1988, he was 5-10 with a 3.97 ERA in 26 starts for the White Sox, but in 1989, while dealing with various injuries he did not pitch in the Majors, making 16 starts for the AAA Vancouver Canadians, where he was 5-6 with a 6.13 ERA.

By the early 1990s, he had established himself as one of the most dependable pitchers in the game, pitching effectively and recording over 250 innings each season from 1991 to 1993, he was selected to the Major League Baseball All-Star Game each of those years. He won 20 games in 1992 and 22 in 1993, when he won the American League Cy Young Award and led the White Sox to the postseason (they lost in the 1993 American League Championship Series to the Toronto Blue Jays). From 1988 until 1995, his season ERA was consistently between 3.00 and 4.00, well below the league average.[1] In 1993, he set a modern (post-1950) record by recording a decision in each of his first 27 starts.[2]


During his baseball career, McDowell played guitar in various groups in the alternative rock genre, usually performing during the off-season.

McDowell’s first band, V.I.E.W., which consisted of him and fellow baseball players Lee Plemel and Wayne Edwards, had two albums, “Extendagenda” and “Replace The Mind.” The band was formed in 1989 and disbanded in 1992. Their most notable accomplishment was touring with The Smithereens in 1992.

His second band, stickfigure, consisted of McDowell, Michael HamiltonMike Mesaros and Frank Funaro. They produced the albums Just a ThoughtFeedbagApe of the Kings and Memonto Mori, before the group disbanded in 2003.[9][10]


  • Extendagenda (1991) – V.I.E.W.
  • Replace the Mind (1992) – V.I.E.W.
  • Just a Thought (1995) – stickfigure
  • Feedbag (2001) – stickfigure
  • Ape of the Kings (2002) – stickfigure
  • Memonto Mori (2003) – stickfigure

Andres Galaragga

  • Led National League in Hits (184 in 1988)
  • Led National League in Total Bases (329 in 1988)
  • Led National League in Doubles (42 in 1988)
  • Led National League in Runs Created (113 in 1988)
  • Led National League in Extra-Base Hits (79 in 1988)
  • Led National League in Batting average (.370 in 1993)
  • Led National League in Home Runs (47 in 1996)
  • Twice led National League in RBIs (150 in 1996 and 140 in 1997)
  • Ranks 69th on MLB All-Time Total Bases List (4,038)
  • Ranks 83rd on MLB All-Time Doubles List (444)
  • Ranks 43rd on MLB All-Time Home Run List (399)
  • Ranks 57th on MLB All-Time RBI List (1,425)
  • Ranks 58th on MLB All-Time Extra-Base Hits List (875)
  • Ranks 95th on MLB All-Time Intentional Walks List (106)
  • Was inducted into the Colorado Sports Hall of Fame in 2007 (first Rockies Baseball Player to be inducted)
  • Best Comeback Athlete ESPY Award 2001 (Atlanta Braves)
  • The Sporting News Comeback Player of the Year Award winner 1993 (Colorado Rockies) 2001 (Atlanta Braves)
  • First Rockies player ever represented at All-Star Game (1993)
  • Rockies Career Leader in At Bats per Home Runs with 15.5.
  • His 150 RBI season in 1996 is still a single season record for the Rockies.[9]
  • Won the three Triple Crown categories (BA, HR, RBI) although in different seasons
  • Set Rockies record for RBI before the All-Star break (84 in 1997)
  • Became the first player in history to win two NL Comeback Player of the Year Awards
  • Honored in the docudrama movie Galarraga: puro béisbol (Galarraga: Nothing But Baseball – Venezuela, 2000)
  • Honored in the book Andrés Galarraga – Real Life Reader Biography, by writer Sue Boulais (2003)
  • Gained induction into the Venezuelan Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum (2010)

Greg Vaughn

Vaughn was selected by the Brewers in the fourth round (75th pick) of the 1984 amateur draft. A slugger whose batting average dropped below .250 as often as rising above it, he compensated with excellent power. He had three seasons with at least 100 runs batted in, and four with 30 or more home runs – including the 1998 season, when he hit 50 to finish 4th in the major leagues behind Ken Griffey Jr.Sammy Sosa, and Mark McGwire, who set the home run record that season. In 1999, he became the first player in major league history to be traded after a 50-homer season when the Padres traded him to the Cincinnati Reds. Vaughn’s arrival in Cincinnati caused a bit of a controversy with club ownership, as he refused to shave his goatee to comply with the Reds’ policy of no facial hair. Fans urged owner Marge Schott to lift the long-standing policy[2] that had been in place since 1967, which she eventually did. On the field, Vaughn hit 45 homers and became the second player in major league history to hit 40 or more homers in consecutive seasons with two different teams (one year after Andrés Galarraga became the first).

During his career, Vaughn batted .242 with 355 home runs, 1072 RBI, 1017 runs, 1475 hits, 284 doubles, 23 triples and 121 stolen bases in 1731 games.

Benito Santiago

Benito Santiago

Benito Santiago Rivera (born March 9, 1965), is a Puerto Rican former professional baseball player.[1] He played as a catcher in Major League Baseball from 1986 to 2005, most prominently as a member of the San Diego Padres, with whom he was a four-time Silver Slugger Award winner as well as a three-time Gold Glove Award winner.[1] The five-time All-Star was considered the premier catcher in the National League (NL) during his tenure with the Padres.[2] In 2015, Santiago was inducted into the Padres Hall of Fame.[3]

Baseball career[edit]

Early years[edit]

Santiago was signed as an amateur free agent by the San Diego Padres on September 1, 1982.[1] After playing four seasons in the minor leagues, he made his Major League debut with the Padres on September 14, 1986 at the age of 21.[1] The next year, Santiago established a Major League record for a rookie by hitting safely in 34 straight games.[4] It was also the longest hitting streak by a catcher in major league history.[5] He ended the season with what would be career-highs in hits (164), doubles (33) and batting average (.300).[1] Santiago was the unanimous selection for the 1987 National League Rookie of the Year Award.[6] Although he struggled defensively, leading the league in errors and passed balls, his hitting performance earned him the 1987 Silver Slugger Award which is awarded annually to the best offensive player at each position.[7][8]

Santiago with the San Diego Padres

While Santiago initially made an impression with his offensive statistics, he soon became known for his defensive prowess, most notably for his strong throwing arm.[9] Santiago was known for his ability to throw out would be base stealers from a kneeling position.[3][9] In 1988, he led National League catchers in assists and in baserunners caught stealing with a 45% average when the league average was 30%.[9][10] Although he still led the league’s catchers with 12 errors, it was an improvement over the 22 he had committed the previous season. Santiago was awarded the first of three consecutive Gold Glove Awards in 1988.[11] Santiago also claimed his second successive Silver Slugger Award as the Padres improved to finish in third place in the National League Western Division.[12][13]

Although he was hitting for only a .236 average at mid-season in 1989, his defensive reputation earned him the starting catcher’s role in the 1989 All-Star Game.[14][15] He was awarded the 1989 National League Gold Glove Award for catchers, as the Padres climbed to second place in the season’s final standings.[16][17]

Santiago rebounded in 1990 and was hitting for a .317 batting average with 9 home runs in mid-June when he was hit by a pitch and had to miss six weeks of the season.[18] He finished the season with a .270 average along with 11 home runs and 53 runs batted in to earn his third Silver Slugger Award.[1][19] He was also named as a reserve player for the National League team in the 1990 All-Star Game and won his third consecutive Gold Glove Award.[20][21]

Before the 1991 season, Santiago asked for a four-year contract worth $11 million, but lost his arbitration case and was awarded a one-year contract worth $1.65 million.[22] A disgruntled Santiago announced that he would leave the Padres when he became eligible for free agency after the 1992 season.[22] He was also disillusioned when the Padres traded away players such as Joe Carter and Jack Clark.[23] In June, Padres manager Greg Riddoch benched Santiago for his lack of hustle on the playing field.[22] Despite the difficulties, Santiago led the league’s catchers with 100 assists and posted a career-high 87 runs batted in.[1]

Santiago returned to arbitration before the 1992 season, this time winning a $3.3 million one-year contract that made him the highest paid catcher in professional baseball.[24] In September 1992, the Padres announced that they would not seek to re-sign Santiago, in what was seen as a cost-cutting measure.[23][25]

San Diego Padres 1992 #09 Benito Santiago road jersey

From 1991 to 1994, Santiago wore a jersey with the uniform number 09, making him one of the only major professional sports players to have ever worn a jersey with a leading zero as part of his uniform number.[26]

Decline and trades[edit]

On December 16, 1992, Santiago signed with the newly established franchise Florida Marlins and hit the first home run in team history. Despite hitting for a .273 average in 1994, he was granted free agency after the season as the Marlins were ready to promote their young catching prospect, Charles Johnson.[1] On April 17, 1995, the Cincinnati Reds signed him and he briefly recovered his form batting .286.[1] On January 30, 1996, he joined the Phillies, where he became the first player to hit a grand slam off Greg Maddux in the regular season after Maddux had been pitching for nearly ten years.[27] Santiago also hit a home run in four consecutive at bats in the same season. Santiago ended the season with a career-high 30 home runs, along with 85 runs batted in, for the last place Phillies.[1]

Santiago then signed a contract to play for the Blue Jays (19971998) where he lost almost the entire 1998 season to a serious injury sustained in a car crash in Florida.[28] A free agent again, he played 89 games for the Cubs in 1999 and played for Cincinnati in 2000.[1]

Resurgence with the Giants[edit]

Santiago arrived in San Francisco on March 17, 2001. He played in 133 games and helped the Giants finish in second place, two games behind the Arizona Diamondbacks in the National League West.[1][29] He shared the 2001 Willie Mac Award with Mark Gardner, which recognized the spirit and leadership of each.[30] Santiago had another good year in 2002, appearing in 126 games and finishing third among National League catchers with a .995 fielding percentage.[1] He earned his fifth All-Star berth and ended the season with a .278 batting average with 74 runs batted in as the Giants once again finished second to the Diamondbacks and claimed the National League wild card berth.[1][31]

The Giants defeated the Atlanta Braves in the first round of the play-offs then met the St. Louis Cardinals in the 2002 National League Championship Series.[32] Santiago hit two home runs in the series along with 6 runs batted in, and was awarded the League Championship Series Most Valuable Player Award as the Giants defeated the Cardinals in five games.[33] In the 2002 World Series against the Anaheim Angels, Santiago delivered 5 runs batted in as the Giants were defeated in a seven-game series.[34][35]

In 2003, the 38-year-old Santiago continued to perform well, hitting fifth in the batting order behind Barry Bonds, he appeared in 108 games while posting a .279 batting average with 56 runs batted in.[1][36]

Later years[edit]

On December 11, 2003, Santiago, again a free agent, signed with the Kansas City Royals. By June 18, he was hitting .274 with six home runs and 23 RBI when he was hit by a pitch from Geoff Geary that broke his hand. After the 2004 season, the Royals traded him to the Pittsburgh Pirates for Leo Núñez, a minor league pitcher. The Pirates let Santiago go after a mere 23 at-bats in favor of giving playing time to young David Ross. Santiago signed with the New York Mets to a minor-league contract, but he appeared in only a handful of games. He opted out of his Triple-A contract, but did not play in the major leagues in 2006.

He was inducted into the San Diego Padres Hall of Fame on August 8, 2015.[37]

Career statistics[edit]

In a 20-year major league career, Santiago played in 1,978 games, accumulating 1,830 hits in 6,951 at bats for a .261 career batting average along with 217 home runs, 920 runs batted in and an on-base percentage of .307.[1] He ended his career with a .987 fielding percentage.[1]

A five-time All-Star, Santiago was known for his strong defensive skills, leading National League catchers three times in assists, once in fielding percentage and once in baserunners caught stealing.[1] As 2010 began, Santiago was tied for eighth on the all-time list of games caught with Brad Ausmus, with 1,917.[38]

Tim Wallach

Tim Wallach

Timothy Charles Wallach (born September 14, 1957) is an American former professional baseball player and coach. He played seventeen seasons in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a third baseman, most notably for the Montreal Expos from 1980 to 1992. A five-time All-Star, Wallach excelled as an offensive and as a defensive player, winning 2 Silver Slugger Awards and 3 Gold Glove Awards. In addition to the Expos, he also played for the Los Angeles Dodgers and Los Angeles Angels and coached for the Dodgers and Miami Marlins.

Early life[edit]

Wallach was born in Huntington Park, California, grew up in Tustin in Orange County, and attended University High School in neighboring Irvine.[1] There he played on the school’s lower-level baseball team during his freshman and sophomore years before being promoted to the varsity team for his last two years.[1] Wallach was not drafted by a major league team out of high school. He enrolled at Saddleback College and transferred to California State University, Fullerton to play college baseball for the Cal State Fullerton Titans.[1]

Wallach played for the United States national baseball team in the 1978 Amateur World Series. His stat-line in the series was .395/.455/.763, while having 14 runs and runs batted in (RBIs), both being the second-most in the series. The United States finished second to Cuba in the tournament.[citation needed] Wallach led the Titans to its first Division I title at the College World Series in Omaha in 1979,[2][3] was named to the all-tournament team, and won the Golden Spikes Award. He was an All-American and named the Sporting News College Player of the Year.[1]


Montreal Expos (1980–1992)[edit]

A St. Louis runner breaks from first base as the Expos pitcher throws to the plate.
Wallach, in the foreground, playing third base for the Expos against the St. Louis Cardinals in 1991

Wallach made his major league debut at the age of 22 on September 6, 1980, against the San Francisco Giants after replacing Ron LeFlore at left field. In his first plate appearance in the top of the 5th inning, he was walked, but in his second plate appearance in the 8th, he hit a home run. Wallach and Brett Pill (September 6, 2011) are the only two players from Cal State Fullerton to hit a home run in their first at bat. Wallach appeared in four other games in that season. He appeared in 71 games in the following season, hitting .236 with 4 home runs and 13 RBIs in 71 games. He appeared in the Expos’ only postseason run while in Montreal, appearing in five games. In Game 1 of the 1981 National League Division Series, he went 1-for-2 with a double and a walk while scoring a run. In the other four games that he appeared in, he went hitless.

1982 was Wallach’s first full-time season, when he hit .268 with 28 home runs, 31 doubles, and 97 RBIs in 158 games. He slightly regressed the following year, hitting .269 with 33 doubles, 19 home runs, and 70 RBIs in 156 games. Wallach earned his first All-Star Game honors in 1984 and 1985; in the latter season he earned his first Gold Glove and the Silver Slugger awards. He regressed a bit the next season, playing in 134 games while having 112 hits, 22 doubles, 18 home runs and 71 RBIs with a .233 batting average, although he led the league in being hit by pitch with 10.

In 1987, Wallach was named to the All-Star Game again while winning his second Silver Slugger Award and finishing fourth in Most Valuable Player voting, doing so in 153 games while setting career highs with a .298 batting average, 123 RBIs and 42 doubles, with the latter leading the major leagues. He regressed a bit the next season, hitting .257 with 32 doubles, 12 home runs and 69 RBIs in 159 games, although he did win his second Gold Glove. He rebounded in 1989, being named to the All-Star Game, playing in 154 games and hitting .277 with 13 home runs, 77 RBIs and a league-leading 42 doubles. He continued his success in 1990, earning his fourth and final All-Star Game appearance, playing in a career high 161 games and hitting .296 with 37 doubles, 21 home runs and 98 RBIs, as well as winning the Gold Glove for the third and final time. He was named team captain prior to the 1991 season, being the first team captain in franchise history. He regressed in production in his final two seasons with the Expos, playing in 301 combined games while having a total of 250 hits, 51 doubles, 22 home runs and 132 RBIs while hitting under .230 both seasons. On December 24, 1992, he was traded to the Los Angeles Dodgers for Tim Barker.[4]

Ben Zobrist

Ben Zobrist

Benjamin Thomas Zobrist (/ˈzbrɪst/; born May 26, 1981), is an American former professional baseball second baseman and outfielder. He played in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the Tampa Bay Devil Rays/RaysOakland AthleticsKansas City Royals, and Chicago Cubs. Zobrist played in three World Series and won the last two, becoming a two-time World Series champion in consecutive seasons of 2015 with the Royals and 2016 with the Cubs, and was the World Series MVP in the latter.

A versatile defender and a switch-hitter with a high walk rate,[1] he played roughly half his innings at second base, and spent significant time at shortstop and various outfield positions.[2] Thus, he has often been referred to as a “super utility player,” with subsequent players who also filled this role often being compared to Zobrist.[3][4]

Early life[edit]

Zobrist was born and raised in Eureka, Illinois, by his parents Cynthia “Cindi” (née Cali) and Tom Zobrist, senior pastor of Liberty Bible Church in Eureka.[5] He grew up a St. Louis Cardinals fan.[6]

Zobrist played baseball starting when he was eight years old; he and his friends built their own wiffle ball field behind his house. Zobrist attended Eureka High School, graduating in 1999. After no professional scouts or college recruiters considered him by the time he graduated, Zobrist thought baseball was over for him. “Baseball was not even a thought in my mind”, Zobrist said, “When I was done with my last high school game, I was driving around town just thinking I’m done with baseball the rest of my life.” Zobrist planned to attend Calvary Bible College in Kansas City, Missouri, but his high school coach encouraged him to spend $50 to participate in an annual summer event that showcased seniors in Peoria, Illinois.[7] He played in the showcase, and was given an offer to play college baseball at Olivet Nazarene University, which he accepted. In his time at Olivet, he pitched and also played at shortstop and second base. In 2002 he was named to both the all-CCAC and all-Region VII First Teams, and received NAIA Honorable Mention All-America status.[8] He was named the Chicagoland Collegiate Athletic Conference Player of the Year, first team All-Region VII, and first team NAIA All-America in 2003.[9] He transferred to Dallas Baptist University for his senior year, where he played shortstop and batted .378 with a .590 slugging percentage.[10][11]

Baseball career[edit]

Zobrist played for the Twin City Stars of the Central Illinois Collegiate League (Now Prospect League) in 2002 and then in Wausau, Wisconsin, for the Wisconsin Woodchucks of the Summer Collegiate Northwoods League in 2003. He was voted team MVP and led his team to the League Championship.[12]

Tampa Bay Devil Rays/Rays[edit]

Zobrist was drafted by the Houston Astros as a shortstop in the sixth round of the 2004 MLB draft. With right-handed pitcher Mitch Talbot, Zobrist was traded to the Tampa Bay Rays for first baseman/designated hitter Aubrey Huff and cash on July 12, 2006.[13]

Zobrist made his MLB debut with Tampa Bay on August 1, 2006.[14] He exclusively played shortstop in his first two seasons with Tampa Bay.[citation needed]

Zobrist struggled through parts of the 2006 and 2007 seasons with the Rays. One day, he met a “swing mechanic” (batting coach) looking for students. The swing coach was able to help Zobrist, and it was evident to the Rays during the 2008 season. “He added the power component”, Rays executive vice president Andrew Friedman said, “He became a lot more physical.”[10]

On December 8, 2015, Zobrist agreed to a four-year, $56 million contract with the Chicago Cubs. The signing reunited him with Joe Maddon, his manager when he was a member of the Tampa Bay Rays.[32] In 2016, he batted .272/.386/.446 and led the major leagues in walks-per-strikeout at 1.17.[33]

Zobrist with the World Series MVP Award in 2016

In Game 4 of the 2016 National League Division Series against the San Francisco Giants with the Cubs having a 2–1 series lead, Zobrist drove in Kris Bryant to score the first run in the top of the ninth and later scored the tying run on a two-run single by Willson Contreras. The Cubs scored another run later that inning, sending them to the National League Championship Series.[34] Following the Cubs’ Game 7 victory in the 2016 World Series, after driving in the first of two go-ahead runs in the top of the 10th inning, he was named the World Series Most Valuable Player and received his second World Series ring.[35] He became the eighth player in Major League history to win consecutive World Series championships on different teams.[36]

In 2017, Zobrist played in 159 games, batting .232/.318/.375. Playing five different positions, he committed only three errors and had a fielding percentage of .991. He was a finalist for the Gold Glove Award at second base, along with Dee Gordon and winner DJ LeMahieu.[37]

In 2018, he had a career-high batting average of .305. He was ejected for the first time in his career on August 14, 2018, by home plate umpire Phil Cuzzi.[38]

In 2019, Zobrist started the season playing in 26 games before being placed on the restricted list on May 6 to deal with a family matter. Following rumors throughout the next months, Zobrist announced his return in late July 2019, and began rehab assignments with the South Bend Cubs and Myrtle Beach Pelicans. Zobrist also had his first Major League pitching appearance in September 2019, striking out Yadier Molina.[39] In 2019 he batted .260/.358/.313 with one home run in 150 at bats.[40]

Swen Nater

Nater was drafted by The Floridians in the 1972 ABA Draft, and then by the Virginia Squires in the June 1972 ABA dispersal draft after the Floridians’ demise.[8][9] Nater was also drafted in the first round of the 1973 NBA draft with the 16th overall pick by the Milwaukee Bucks;[1] he was the first NBA first-round pick to have played in the NCAA without ever starting a college game.[3] Milwaukee offered him $50,000.[10] In August 1973, he opted to sign a three-year, $300,000 contract with the Squires, who spread the payments over seven years.[9][10] On November 21, 1973, the Squires traded Nater to the San Antonio Spurs for a draft pick and $300,000.[9]

With the Spurs, Nater was the ABA Rookie of the Year after averaging 14.1 points and 12.6 rebounds for the season.[7][10] He led the ABA in field goal percentage in 1974 and led the league in rebounding in 1975. He was named to the All-ABA Second Team in 1974 and 1975 and participated in the ABA All-Star Game both seasons.[8] During his three seasons in the ABA, Nater played for the Spurs, Squires, and the New York Nets.

Nater’s NBA career began with the Milwaukee Bucks. During the 1976-77 NBA season, Nater amassed three games where he had at least 20 rebounds and 20 points, including a 30 point and 33 rebound performance in a 126-109 win over the Atlanta Hawks on December 19, 1976.[11][12] After the season ended, Milwaukee traded Nater to the Buffalo Braves for Buffalo’s first round draft pick, which Milwaukee used to select Marques Johnson. When the Braves moved to San Diego and became the Clippers a year later, Nater became a local favorite. Nater led the NBA in rebounding average during the 1979–80 season, making him the only player ever to lead both the NBA and ABA in rebounding.[7] On January 12, 1982, he had surgery to remove bone chips from his right knee. The injury limited him to just 14 games in 1981–82 and seven in 1982–83.[13]

Before the 1983–84 season, Nater was traded by the Clippers along with a just-drafted Byron Scott to the Los Angeles Lakers for Norm NixonEddie Jordan, and a 1986 second-round draft pick (which would eventually be dealt to the Phoenix Suns and become Jeff Hornacek). The Lakers acquired him to backup Kareem Abdul Jabbar.[14] Nater and Scott helped lead the Lakers to the NBA Finals that year, but the next season the team did not offer him a guaranteed contract.

Nater played for Australian Udine in the Italian League, where he was the best paid player and led the league in rebounding even though the team ended up being relegated. The next season, he initially accepted an offer from Barcelona in the Spanish League, but ultimately he changed his mind and decided to retire.

Doug Christie

1992–93 L.A. Lakers 23 0 14.4 .425 .167 .758 2.2 2.3 1.0 .2 6.2
1993–94 L.A. Lakers 65 34 23.3 .434 .328 .697 3.6 2.1 1.4 .4 10.3
1994–95 New York 12 0 6.6 .227 .143 .800 1.1 .7 .2 .1 1.3
1995–96 New York 23 0 9.5 .479 .526 .591 1.5 1.1 .5 .1 4.0
1995–96 Toronto 32 17 25.6 .436 .414 .789 3.8 2.9 1.8 .5 10.1
1996–97 Toronto 81 81 38.6 .417 .384 .775 5.3 3.9 2.5 .3 14.5
1997–98 Toronto 78 78 37.7 .428 .326 .829 5.2 3.6 2.4 .7 16.5
1998–99 Toronto 50 50 35.4 .388 .304 .841 4.1 3.7 2.3 .5 15.2
1999–2000 Toronto 73 73 31.0 .407 .360 .843 3.9 4.4 1.4 .6 12.4
2000–01 Sacramento 81 81 36.3 .395 .376 .897 4.4 3.6 2.3 .6 12.3
2001–02 Sacramento 81 81 34.5 .460 .352 .851 4.6 4.2 2.0 .3 12.0
2002–03 Sacramento 80 80 33.9 .479 .395 .810 4.3 4.7 2.3 .5 9.4
2003–04 Sacramento 82 82 33.9 .461 .345 .860 4.0 4.2 1.8 .5 10.1
2004–05 Sacramento 31 31 32.1 .407 .256 .893 4.0 4.9 1.4 .4 7.3
2004–05 Orlando 21 13 25.2 .367 .217 .909 2.6 2.2 1.8 .2 5.7
2005–06 Dallas 7 7 26.4 .346 .000 .667 1.9 2.0 1.3 .1 3.7
2006–07 L.A. Clippers 7 0 11.7 .294 .167 .667 1.6 1.1 .4 .1 1.9
Career 827 708 31.5 .426 .354 .821 4.1 3.6 1.9 .5 11.2

Mugsy Bogues

Mugsy Bogues

Tyrone Curtis “Muggsy” Bogues (born January 9, 1965) is an American former basketball player. The shortest player ever to play in the National Basketball Association (NBA), the 5 ft 3 in (1.60 m) Bogues played point guard for four teams during his 14-season career in the NBA. Although best known for his ten seasons with the Charlotte Hornets, he also played for the Washington BulletsGolden State Warriors, and Toronto Raptors. Bogues finished in the top seven in assists in six consecutive seasons (19891995), and in the top ten in steals in three of those seasons. He had 146 career NBA double-doubles.[1] After his NBA career, he served as head coach of the now-defunct Charlotte Sting of the WNBA.

Early life

Bogues was born in Baltimore, Maryland, and grew up in the Lafayette Court housing projects.[2] His mother was 4 ft 11 in (1.50 m) and his father was 5 ft 5 in (1.65 m). He had three older siblings.[3]

Bogues’s childhood was troubled. At five years old, he was hit by stray buckshot in his neighborhood and had to be hospitalized.[4] As a child, he witnessed a man get beaten to death with a baseball bat, a sight that haunted him into adulthood.[5] When Bogues was 12 years old, his father was sentenced to twenty years in prison for armed robbery.[3] Around the same time, his brother Chuckie began using hard drugs.[4]

In addition to basketball, Bogues was a standout wrestler and baseball player growing up.[6][7] As a child playing basketball on playgrounds, he was nicknamed “Muggsy” after a diminutive character from The Bowery Boys.[3][6]

Bogues initially attended and played basketball at Southern High School in Baltimore. Because Bogues aspired to be a dental technician, he transferred to Baltimore’s Dunbar High School which offered healthcare classes.[8] At Dunbar, he was coached by Bob Wade, later the head coach at the University of Maryland. He was a teammate of future NBA players David WingateReggie Williams and Reggie Lewis (the latter two of whom were in his graduating class). The Dunbar Poets finished the 1981–82 season at 29–0 during Bogues’s junior year and finished 31–0 during his senior year in 1982–83, and were ranked first in the nation by USA Today.[9]

Bogues received scholarship offers to play college basketball for several schools including VirginiaPenn State and Seton Hall.[10]


Bogues making a layup for the Wake Forest Demon Deacons

Bogues attended Wake Forest University and played college basketball for the Wake Forest Demon Deacons for four years. He averaged 11.3 points, 8.4 assists and 3.1 steals per game in his junior year. He followed with a senior campaign in which he averaged 14.8 points, 9.5 assists, 3.8 rebounds and 2.4 steals per game. In 1986–87, he led the Atlantic Coast Conference in steals and assists and received the Frances Pomeroy Naismith Award.[11][12] As a senior, he received the Arnold Palmer Award as Wake Forest‘s most valuable athlete. When his collegiate career ended, he was the ACC career leader in steals and assists.[3]

Wake Forest retired his number within a few years of his leaving the program.[13] In 2001, he was inducted into the Wake Forest Sports Hall of Fame.[14] As of 2021, he remains Wake Forest’s all-time leader in both steals and assists.[15]

Bogues played for the USA national team in the 1986 FIBA World Championship and won the gold medal.[16] Under head coach Lute Olson, Bogues played in all ten of the team’s games and led them in assists and steals.[17]

Professional career

Rhode Island Gulls (1987)

Bogues was selected second overall in the 1987 United States Basketball League draft by the Rhode Island Gulls.[18] Bogues was a fan favorite in the USBL and the Gulls led the league in attendance.[18][19] In his only season in the league, he averaged 22.2 points and 8.4 assists per game and led the league in minutes per game before an ankle injury ended his season.[20]

Washington Bullets (1987–1988)

Bogues was drafted twelfth overall in the 1987 NBA draft by the Washington Bullets, and was part of a talent-laden draft class that also included David RobinsonReggie MillerScottie Pippen, and Kevin Johnson.[21] Bogues made his NBA debut on November 6, 1987, against the Atlanta Hawks at Omni Coliseum; he started and led the team in assists.[22] At the time of his debut, he was 16.5 inches (42 cm) shorter than the average NBA player.[3] In his rookie year, Bogues was a teammate of Manute Bol who stood 7 ft 7 in (2.31 m) tall. They were the tallest and shortest players in NBA history at the time, with 28 inches (71 cm) difference between them. Bol and Bogues appeared on three magazine covers together.[23] Bogues’s playing time dropped dramatically when coach Kevin Loughery was fired and replaced with Wes Unseld.[24] On March 4, 1988, Bogues recorded seven steals (and scored 10 points) during a 95–88 win over the Indiana Pacers.[25] Despite starting only fourteen games as a rookie, Bogues led the Bullets in both steals and assists.[26]

Charlotte Hornets (1988–1997)

The following season, the Bullets left Bogues and Jay Murphy unprotected in the 1988 NBA expansion draft and he was selected by the Charlotte Hornets.[24][27] Bogues told the Washington Post that he had “no quarrel” with the Bullets for leaving him unprotected and his agents reported that he was excited to start anew in Charlotte.[24][27]

In Charlotte’s first season, head coach Dick Harter confined Bogues to the bench, preferring to use him to provide short bursts of energy as a substitute. Harter was fired during the following season and Bogues began to flourish in the up-tempo offenses run by his successors, Gene Littles and Allan Bristow.[28][6] Bogues went on to play parts of ten seasons with the Hornets, spending the vast majority of his time as a starter and becoming one of the faces of the Hornets alongside Alonzo Mourning and Larry Johnson.[29][30]

During his time in Charlotte, the Hornets rose from mediocrity to a serious contender; Bogues three times led the team to the playoffs.[29] During this time, Bogues was wildly popular among basketball fans, as were the Hornets.[4][6] In all six seasons between 1989 and 1995, he finished in the top ten in the league in assists, only once finishing worse than fourth.[31] In 1992–93, Bogues had the NBA’s best assist-to-turnover ratio. One of his best seasons came in 1993–94 when he averaged a double-double, including a second-place finish in assists per game. In the 1994–95 season, he set a career high with 10.8 points per game.[29] However, in August 1995, after six consecutive seasons of an increasing scoring average, he underwent arthroscopic surgery on his left knee. The recovery and repeated setbacks saw him placed on the injured list at least three separate times in the 1995–96 season.[32] He finished the season with only fourteen points in six games. Bogues returned to action in earnest the following season but missed 17 games and his production had dropped off slightly across the board.[29]

Bogues’s relationship with the team soured considerably in 1997. In June, coach Dave Cowens suggested that Bogues should consider retiring due to his nagging knee injury. Only a week later, the Hornets signed point guard David Wesley, his presumptive replacement. In August, owner George Shinn assured Bogues that he would be able to finish his playing career with the team. However, the team later requested that he undergo a preseason MRI on his injured knee.[33] On November 7, Bogues was traded, along with Tony Delk, to the Golden State Warriors in exchange for B. J. Armstrong. At the time, he was the NBA’s all-time leader in assist-to-turnover ratio[34] and the franchise leader in steals and assists. After the trade, he severed ties with the organization.[33] The trade made Dell Curry, Bogues’ closest friend on the team,[4] the last remaining original member of the Hornets.[34]

Golden State Warriors (1997–1999)

Bogues led the Warriors in assists in the 1997–98 season despite starting in fewer than half of the team’s games.[35] He appeared in 36 games in the lockout-shortened following season, missing time due to hamstring and knee injuries as well as chickenpox.[29][36][37]

Toronto Raptors (1999–2001)

Prior to the 1999–2000 season, Bogues signed with the Toronto Raptors for the veterans’ minimum,[38] reuniting him with longtime teammate Dell Curry.[39] With the Raptors in 1999–2000, he played 80 games in a season for the first time since 1992–93, though he started in only five of those games.[29] At 35 years old on March 3, 2000, he tied a career high with 24 points in a victory over the Boston Celtics.[29][40]

Due to his chronic knee injury,[41] Bogues appeared in only three games in the 2000–01 season, which would be his final.[29] His last game came on January 27, 2001, against the Chicago Bulls, a scoreless outing.[42] On February 22, 2001, he was traded with Mark Jackson to the New York Knicks for Chris Childs and a 2002 first round draft pick. He was included in the trade for salary cap reasons[41] and never reported to New York during his stint with them. At the end of the last season in which he played, Bogues ranked twelfth all-time in assists and thirteenth all-time in assists per game in NBA history.[43][44]

On August 10, 2001, Bogues was traded to the Dallas Mavericks in a three-team deal involving Shandon AndersonHoward Eisley and Glen Rice.[29] The Mavericks waived Bogues on October 29, after he told the team that he intended to step away from basketball to care for his mother who was fighting cancer.[45] On October 31, he became a free agent.[46]

In July 2002, Bogues told The Baltimore Sun that he had not retired and was still hoping to play again.[47]

Career statistics

  GP Games played   GS Games started  MPG Minutes per game
 FG% Field goal percentage  3P% 3-point field goal percentage  FT% Free throw percentage
 RPG Rebounds per game  APG Assists per game  SPG Steals per game
 BPG Blocks per game  PPG Points per game  Bold Career high

Regular season

1987–88 Washington 79 14 20.6 .390 .188 .784 1.7 5.1 1.6 .0 5.0
1988–89 Charlotte 79 21 22.2 .426 .077 .750 2.1 7.8 1.4 .1 5.4
1989–90 Charlotte 81 65 33.9 .491 .192 .791 2.6 10.7 2.0 .0 9.4
1990–91 Charlotte 81 46 28.4 .460 .000 .796 2.7 8.3 1.7 .0 7.0
1991–92 Charlotte 82 69 34.0 .472 .074 .783 2.9 9.1 2.1 .1 8.9
1992–93 Charlotte 82 80 35.0 .453 .231 .833 3.7 8.8 2.0 .1 10.0
1993–94 Charlotte 77 77 35.7 .471 .167 .806 4.1 10.7 1.7 .0 10.8
1994–95 Charlotte 78 78 33.7 .477 .200 .889 3.3 8.7 1.3 .0 11.1
1995–96 Charlotte 6 0 12.8 .375 .000 1.000 1.2 3.2 .3 .0 2.3
1996–97 Charlotte 65 65 28.9 .400 .417 .844 2.2 7.2 1.3 .0 8.0
1997–98 Charlotte 2 0 8.0 .437 1.000 .5 2.0 1.0 .0 3.0
1997–98 Golden State 59 31 26.3 .494 .250 .894 2.2 5.5 1.1 .1 5.8
1998–99 Golden State 36 5 19.8 .439 .000 .861 2.0 3.7 1.2 .0 5.1
1999–00 Toronto 80 5 21.6 .448 .333 .908 1.7 3.7 .8 .1 5.1
2000–01 Toronto 3 0 11.3 .000 .000 1.0 1.7 .7 .0 0.0
Career 889 556 28.6 .458 .278 .827 2.6 7.6 1.6 .0 7.7